A jet impinging on a microscopic surface.
Modelling of Cavitation Effects on Biomaterials in Targeted Drug Delivery (2020-)

Treatments for many illnesses have undesirable side-effects and very little of the therapeutic agent may reach the tissues of interest. Methods of targeted drug delivery aim to improve the efficacy of treatment by concentrating the medicine in a region, with the potential to significantly reduce negative side-effects and the need for extended periods of therapy. These novel drug delivery techniques also allow treatment of areas which are traditionally difficult to reach, benefit from being minimally-invasive, and offer the possibility of repurposing existing drugs. The method of interest in this study uses ultrasound radiation to track, induce oscillation, and cavitate drug-carrying micro- or nano-bubbles when in proximity to the target area. Bubbles are introduced to the body intravenously or intra-arterially. During oscillation, drug particles are shed whilst microstreaming occurs in the surrounding fluid. Cavitation is a violent collapse, resulting in rising fluid temperatures, and the creation of a high-speed fluid jet and shockwave. These phenomena may beneficially destroy tissue and increase uptake of the drug, or unintentionally cause necrosis. A greater understanding of cavitation effects on bio-materials is required to improve controllability of the technique. This project will model the damage and disruption to biological tissue due to a fluid jet, and analyse the two-way fluid-structure interaction between the fluid and a membrane in proximity to the recently-collapsed bubble.

This work is being conducted by Sarah.

Academic(s) involved: Sina and Yonghao

Vortical structures near a cylinder close to a boundary layer visualised using the Q-criterion method.
Compressible Boundary Layer Interaction with Obstacles (2017-2021)

A cylinder in a cross-flow is used as a fundamental configuration to investigate the impact of boundary-layer proximity on the flow characteristic around obstacles and the forces experienced by them. Special attention is paid to the low sub-critical range since, with the advent of small space crafts, a better understanding of the flow structures/forces around/on objects in a boundary layer in medium Reynolds () and Mach () numbers is required. However, this regime is still almost completely ignored in the literature despite having a rich and complex physics. This gap in the knowledge is filled in this work through high-fidelity numerical simulations using massively parallel high-order CFD simulations.

Academic(s) involved: Sina